Adult learning Context and Perspectives/AN ANALYSYS OF THREE DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL LEARNING

Intercontinental Master’s Program in Adult Learning and Global Change

Course: Adult learning: Perspectives and Contexts Assignment 2: Report

Instructors: Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren, Song-ee Ahn, Per Andersson

Discussion Group: The Colleagues 2 Tutor: Song-ee Ahn Date: 12/ 12/2008


REPORT ON ASSIGNMENT 2

AN ANALYSYS OF THREE DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL LEARNING

Link to e-portfolio

Group Colleagues 2 members:

Greg Link

Alexandra Suchy

Ginger Norwood

Oscar Vallazza

The report will be divided into the following sections:

INTRODUCTION

THE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION DIMENSION IN GLOBAL LEARNING

IDENTITY DIMENSION IN GLOBAL LEARNING

PARADIGM SHIFT DIMENSION IN GLOBAL LEARNING

CONCLUSION

WEBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. (Wenger, 2008). Some might consider it a bit of a stretch to classify our month old group of four as community of practice. We don’t.

We have engaged in joint activities and discussions that have helped each other reach understandings. By sharing resources and experiences from our practice we have built relationships that enabled us to learn from each other.

Communities of practice do not exist harmoniously. The various disagreements and challenges brought forward by members only emphasize our commitment to our community of practice. Although we did not always reach consensus in all of our discussions we were able to clearly identify three factors – Intercultural Communication, Identity and Paradigm Shifts – as being the key dimensions in the development of global learning. Our shared definition of Global Learning will guide our discussion in this report.


Our definition of Global Learning

Global Learning is that aspect of learning that includes an understanding of human interactions and knowledge across cultural boundaries in light of the cultural differences affecting the participants’ diversity of communication styles, values and beliefs. Global Learning occurs within a collaborative and transformational context of world-wide networks. Global Learning may eventually promote a paradigm shift that would ultimately redefine people’s identities on a personal and potentially global scale.

The contexts in which Global Learning takes place include:

The global level, when people engage in meaningful, constructive and collaborative enterprises with others across borders. This level advances a meta-perspective on global learning and goes hand-in-hand with other globalization processes.

The local level, when people engage within their own communities, contexts and cultures which leads to personal transformation. This level allows for opportunities for engagement across previously impenetrable borders.

The personal level, when learners develop their personal knowledge in light of the intercultural dimension of their inquiry. This level advances personal growth and transformation and serves as a platform for participation in global enterprises.

We have deemed that understanding intercultural communication is a primary factor in enabling global learning. Once individuals are aware of each others’ culture and circumstances, mutual respect can facilitate learning.

Our group also noted that we develop our identities in our local environments to foster global learning. Through analysis of the numerous factors we find ourselves developing as learners as well as evolving as teachers.

The final section explores when paradigm shifts take place and how they affect our lives. People often experience a personal transformation that enables the individual to take action.

THE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION DIMENSION IN GLOBAL LEARNING

This section is divided into the following headings:

  • Introduction
  • Narrative Analysis
  • Intercultural Communication Definitions
  • Applicability of Course Theories
  • Section Summary

Introduction

This section provides an introduction for understanding the other dimensions presented in this report. It will analyze the intercultural dimension of our personal learning experiences with the aid of Intercultural Communication taxonomy and some of the theories presented in this course.

The complexity of a discussion on Global Learning is increased by the cross-cultural nature of our learning context and our diverse experiences. When working and studying in our global environment, in addition to issues typical of an on-line program, we face several intercultural communication aspects that would need to be closely examined:

  • Cultural differences, including values and beliefs;
  • Personal backgrounds, including learning and professional experiences;
  • Language differences, even though we are all using English as a way to communicate;
  • Non-Verbal Communication patterns that are not part of our asynchronous communication.

All these factors and more become relevant to our enterprises. Unfortunately, such broad intercultural spectrum won’t magically give rise to a new third-culture. It will be up to us to understand the processes through which we may achieve that level of transformation.

Narrative Analysis

The following observations have emerged from the analysis of our narratives and discussion.

1. Each member of our group has learned from interacting with people of different cultures.

2. Within our relevant professional end personal enterprises, many of us function as cultural bridges to facilitate cross-cultural understanding.

3. Cultures are defined as both typical country-based traditions, and as diversity existing within a single country. In literature we find terms such as intercultural, multicultural, and intra-cultural to express intercultural variations. Due to lack of space, this report will not discuss these differences.

4. Suspending judgment and tolerance for ambiguity are pivotal to the development of intercultural communication effectiveness.

5. Interaction with other cultures may create tension and anxiety, which are seen as steps for personal growth and learning.

6. Cross-cultural experiences have made us aware of the hidden dimension of intercultural communication and the difficulty of applying our personal cultural framework to intercultural settings.

7. Within our group we find differences in levels of intercultural awareness.

Intercultural Communication Definitions

Intercultural Communication is an interdisciplinary, systemic and broad-scope approach to the understanding of culture and its impact on the human experience and globalization processes. It offers a valuable perspective for the analysis of complex intercultural issues such as identity, personal and cultural transformation, and paradigm shift, which will be presented in the other sections.

Intercultural Communication literature is a valuable resource for our discussion on global learning processes. Here are three succinct contributions that may be helpful in understanding issues of Global Learning. Additional information on intercultural communication theories is provided in the webliography.

What is culture?

Geert Hoofstede: Four cultural dimensions.

Prof. Geert Hoofstede is an interculturalist who researched extensively on issues of cultural diversity. His work is considered one of the building blocks of Intercultural Communication. He developed a taxonomy that covers the meta-differences found across all human cultures. Such differences are inescapable aspects of our global experience in the world. They have an impact on our identity and on how we relate to others. He defined four dimensions in which cultures differ:

Power Distance:

Relates to the degree of equality/inequality between people in a particular society.


Individualism

Focuses on the degree to which a society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships.


Uncertainty Avoidance

Defines the level of acceptance for uncertainty and ambiguity within a society.

Masculinity

Defines the degree societies reinforce, or do not reinforce, the traditional masculine role model of male achievement, control, and power. (Anonymous, nd)

How do we develop cultural competence?

Milton Bennett: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity

With reference to how members of our group would be individually situated with regard to our personal knowledge of and exposure to intercultural issues (Narrative Analysis, point 7), here is a summary of interculturalist Dr. Milton Bennett’s six-stage developmental model of intercultural sensitivity on each individual’s ability to successfully engage cross-culturally. This process builds upon our knowledge and awareness of our and other cultures as codified by Hoofstede.

1. Denial: Individuals do not recognize cultural differences;

2. Defense: Individuals recognize some differences, but see them as negative;

3. Minimization: Individuals are unaware of projecting their own cultural values and see them as superior;

4. Acceptance: Individuals shift perspectives to understand that the same “ordinary” behavior can have different meanings in different cultures;

5. Adaptation: Individuals can evaluate others’ behavior from others’ frame of reference and can adapt behavior to fit the norms of a different culture. The key skill is perspective-shifting, the ability to look at the world “through different eyes;”

6. Integration: Individuals not only value a variety of cultures, but are constantly defining their own identity and evaluating behavior and values in contrast to and in concert with a multitude of cultures. They shift frame of reference and also deal with resulting identity issues. (Bennett, 1993); (Landis et al. 2004); (Rust 2006); (Morris 2008)

Stages of intercultural development are not set in stone; they accurately reflect the main levels of experience through which people refine their intercultural competencies. They can be considered stages of global learning.

We believe that an additional stage could be added:

7. Transformation: At this stage, people would move beyond intercultural integration as defined above and develop a new third-culture approach emerging from a paradigm shift that would ultimately redefine their identities. (Adler, 1974; Kim, 1994)

How do we dialogue in an intercultural environment?

David Bohm: Dialogue

Physicist David Bohm passionately promoted dialogue as “aimed at the understanding of consciousness per se, as well as exploring the problematic nature of day-to-day relationship and communication.” (Bohm, 1996) He recognized that we are social beings; we need language to communicate; and that true dialogue may develop out of trust and openness within a small group context that will promote the emergence of a microculture of multiple views and value systems. His appealing ideas could have a practical application to our cohort’s learning processes.

Applicability of Course Theories

It would be impossible to examine the intercultural relevance of all the literature of this course. What follows is a set of cross-references linking the narrative analysis to some of the theories.

Perturbation

Anthropologist Calervo Oberg defined culture shock as a stage of intercultural experience. Similarly to what happens in culture shock, learning must be significant to the learner, who achieves a different level of understanding through a stage of perturbation (von Glaserfeld, 1989, p.6) or dissonance (Jaeger; Laurite, p. 6). Thus learning occurs as the result of the interplay between meaning and experience and develops within a context that is both personal and social. The intercultural dimension of this kind of experience is paramount.

Objective Reality and Adaptedness

In Intercultural Communication tolerance for ambiguity is a significant aspect of culture. Similarly, based on their criticism towards the existence of an objective external reality, many constructivists advocate the negotiation of meaning. Miscommunication across cultures could be highly reduced when meaning is not viewed as an absolute statement, this way promoting the necessary level of empathy and mindfulness required in global enterprises and an open-ended approach towards global learning.

Armando Rodriguez challenges the tenets of established scholarly views on Intercultural Communication by recognizing that meaning and ambiguity are interconnected aspects that are “constantly pushing us to construct new and different ways of being and understanding the world.” Rather than considering cultures as rigid contexts, he accepts the notion of cultures in flux. (Rodriguez, 2002) His approach to understanding intercultural issues seems to agree with the tenets of Constructivism.

Adaptedness is a concept that relates well to tolerance for ambiguity. “Adaptedness from a constructivist point of view must be understood as the condition of fit or viability within external and internal constraints.” (von Glaserfeld, 1989).

Understanding

Intercultural Communication promotes intercultural competence as a state of advanced intercultural effectiveness and sensitivity. Constructivism recognizes that mere knowledge is not enough to develop full understanding. True knowledge is “never acquired passively” but is instead the result of active social interaction. (von Glaserfeld, 1989). This perspective is even truer when learning across cultural barriers. Thus intercultural competence rests heavily on active and participatory interaction with people from other cultures. Dr. Bennett’s model could help us develop such competence while engaging in global practices.

Truth

In Intercultural Communication truth may be seen as the result of intercultural dialogue.

In Constructivism truth “is socially constructed and agreed upon, resulting from “co-participation in cultural practices.” (Doolittle, p. 4) As we engage in global enterprises, the dialogical emerging of shared values and meanings could hopefully lead to cultural transformation and multicultural identity.

Schemata

As shown in Bennett’s model, understanding other cultures occurs in stages of learning similar to those presented in some of the theories examined in this course. The process of cultural adaptation echoes the sequential working of discernment and variations.(Marton, F., & Trigwell, K. 2000) The misinterpretation of symbols based on one’s culture and the learning that occurs after a perturbation event are the basis of cross-cultural adaptation processes, however they may be defined.

Section Summary

The intercultural aspect of Global Learning wraps around our learning context and experience and is intrinsically related to the way we communicate.

Intercultural Communication has evolved from a Cartesian approach of explaining fixed cultural differences to a more holistic and globalized way of making sense of a very complex reality and its intercultural factors.

In the pursuit of our relevant global enterprises, we can be more aware of the cultural dimension and the stages of development of intercultural communication competence. Through mindfulness and attendance we may gain an appreciation for the cultural variations experienced in intercultural contexts.

David Bohm reminds us that dialogue can be helpful in exploring “shared meaning; the nature of collective thought; the pervasiveness of fragmentation; the function of awareness; the microcultural context.” (Bohm, 1996) This approach seems relevant to our global learning experience.

As Rodriguez points out, we live in a “world of chaos and order, ambiguity and meaning, homogeneity and diversity, stability and instability, and equilibrium and disequilibrium.” (Rodriguez, 2002) Global Learning requires a high level of awareness of all the above, in addition to personal motivation and shared knowledge of the workings of Intercultural Communication.

Awareness of intercultural communication enables us to understand how culture shapes our identities and how our identities and roles determine our interactions with others. These aspects will be more closely examined in the following sections.

IDENTITY DIMENSION IN GLOBAL LEARNING

This section is divided into the following headings:

  • Introduction
  • Common Themes from Learning Contexts
  • Section Summary

Introduction

Another important dimension of Global Learning for our group members was the ways in which our identities affect our roles as learners and teachers. As Wenger (1998) states, “Having a sense of identity is a crucial aspect of learning” (p 6). Each of us broadly defined our learning contexts by our many roles which shape our identities – not just as students in a traditional sense, but also as teachers, advisors, facilitators, parents, and colleagues. Recognizing that these roles have different meanings in different cultural contexts, common themes did emerge from our analysis of identities and roles in learning.

Common themes from our learning contexts

The common themes from our learning contexts included:

  • Our previous learning experiences influence our choices of roles and the ways in which we perform them
  • Learning through our roles, we are able to support our own and others’ identity development
  • The social and cultural component of identity formation is integral to our learning

We will briefly expand on each of these themes, integrating our personal experiences and relevant learning theories.

Our previous learning experiences influence our choices of roles and the ways in which we perform them

Based on the theory of the perpetual learning cycle, that ‘what we know directs how we seek information; how we seek information determines what information we get; how information we receive affects what we know’ (Winn & Snyder,1996, 5.4.3), our life experiences not only inform what we know, but also how we use that knowledge. Learning depends on our life experiences, and our identities are shaped by them. For some in our group, pivotal learning experiences facilitated shifts in our identities and had an important influence in our choice of roles.

In particular, experiential learning opportunities ‘woke us up’ to new ways of learning and relating to others. For several of us, our identities as learners were transformed as we engaged in learning environments that shifted our extrinsic motivations (concern about grades, demands, expectations to fit in and do well) to intrinsic motivation because the learning was relevant and meaningful in our lives (Marton & Säljö, 2005, 54).

Most of us pursued some type of teaching occupation. By way of comparison, our roles in the teaching profession have helped us to reflect on how our identities have been affected by how we were taught, how we learned in those contexts, and how people we work with today are learning within their own educational contexts. That comparison helps us to integrate experiences we had as learners into our teaching methodologies and techniques.

Learning through our roles, we are able to support our own and others’ identity development

Our roles as students shifted our perspectives and worldviews, helping to shape and form our identities. Similarly, our roles as teachers, advisors, and parents have also been integral to our identity development, and in turn have put us in positions to support others’ in their process of identity formation and development.

As discussed in the previous section on intercultural communication, our jobs often put us in the role of ‘cultural bridges’ which helps others’ navigate their way through learning and identity development, both in our own culture and across cultures. From the very tangible role of parent facilitating learning of a young child (and learning immensely from the experience), to supporting immigrants and foreign students to absorb and interact with information in a customary way (i.e., in Canada, a ‘western context’) while trying to maintain one’s individual identity, to mentoring high school students to take more control over their own learning, we value Roger’s premise that significant learning is only possible when the learner has self confidence in her/his ability to learn (Entwistle, 2005, 10). Rogers named qualities of ‘realness,’ ‘prizing, acceptance, trust,’ and ‘empathetic understanding’ (Entwistle, 2005, 11) as important for teachers wanting to promote learning with personal meaning, and in our roles as parents, teachers and advisors, we try to practice these qualities to encourage strong and confident identities to promote deep, meaningful learning experiences.

The social and cultural component of identity formation is integral to our learning

As Wenger (1991) explains in his conception of communities of practice, “It is our participation in social communities and cultural practices that provides the very materials out of which we construct who we are give meaning to what we do, and understand what we know” (p 2). Our identities are shaped by culture and the communities to which we belong, and group members attributed some of our most valuable learning experiences to social interactions. By advising an international student at the university, working with colleagues, teaching a foreign language, or challenging an introverted personality by leading workshops, our engagement and relationships through our various roles fostered growth and learning.

Another social aspect of identity and role formation is a shared experience among us that our avowed identity may clash with the ascribed identity we are assigned in different cultural contexts. At times, this clash comes from others’ expectations or assumptions of us, and our own resistance to the authority or privilege the expectations afford us. For example, as teachers and facilitators promoting constructivist notions of knowledge creation, some of us try to create learning environments that promote creativity (Wenger, 1998, 6) and space for learners to actively construct their own knowledge domains (Winn & Snyder, 1996, 5.4.3). However many learners, used to rote systems that promote the handover of external knowledge that the teacher holds, are resistant to the ‘teacher’ assuming a facilitation role; it conflicts with their own assumptions about their role as a passive learner. This clash is one that must continuously be negotiated in formal and non-formal learning environments and communities.

Section Summary

The recognition that our personal experiences affect our identities and vice versa is an inherent part of learning across cultures. We found that when we can be open to change, it is a process of self improvement and growth for ourselves and also a process we can promote for others through our various roles.

We saw our learning and identity shifts reinforced by the phenomenon of perturbation. Noting Piaget’s analysis that, “Cognitive change and learning take place when a scheme, instead of producing the expected result, leads to perturbation, and perturbation leads to accommodation that establishes a new equilibrium” (von Glaserfeld, 1989, 6), we felt that our greatest learning experiences were a result of profound changes, either internal (altering our own worldview) or external (new environments), that shifted the ways we interacted with ourselves and others. Thus, meaningful learning affects our identity development and potentially leads to paradigm shifts in how we experience the world.

PARADIGM SHIFT DIMENSION IN GLOBAL LEARNING

A further global dimension of learning that resonated in our personal learning contexts described the impact of paradigm shifts. This section of the paper will consider the general concept of the paradigm shift as well as how it can be defined on a global level by illustrating the powerful repercussions of 9-11. We will then explore the paradigm shifts in our own learning contexts and then deliberate to what extent motivation plays its part.

“Change is inevitable.  It is the only true constant.”

– Benjamin Disraeli

Originally coined by Thomas Kuhn in the 1960’s, the paradigm shift was proposed to explain the transformation of theory due to a number of problems that would contradict an original theory.  In his article, Barr (1995) suggested it occurs when difficulties or anomalies begin to appear in the functioning of the existing paradigm which can be handled adequately; and when an alternative paradigm will account for all that the original paradigm accounts for….and offers real hope for solving the major difficulties facing the current paradigm. The progression of learning theories that we have been exploring exemplifies this shift by demonstrating how initially Behaviorists observed the learning of knowledge as an external and controlled stimulus that would cause automated and homogeneous responses.  Once observational testing began to reveal ambiguity, a new concept of learning emerged with the Cognitive Theory, implying that learning was an internal process. The studies conducted and results analyzed from this theory then lay the foundation from which the Constructivist Theory materialized.


Today our society has expanded the scientific definition of the paradigm shift to describe how individuals perceive events, people, environments and life altogether as well as how these transformations – positive or negative – effect how individuals live their lives today.   On a global level, much of our awareness and thinking has been influenced by global events.  For example, a tragic event that generated change in peoples’ worldviews occurred in the intended attack on the
Twin Towers on September 11, 2000.  Many people, particularly in the US, internalized the fear and hatred propagated as a result of the attacks. It also created an internal paradigm shift for many people at the local level and effected how they related to others. As a reaction to this event and fueled by overwhelming fear, various aggressive and protective measures were taken around the world. For example people in the United States bought out supplies of duct tape in order to shield their windows in fear of continued terrorist retaliation, and minority cultural/religious groups in North America and around the world were suddenly held accountable and victimized to unjust treatment.

The paradigm shift in perception and behavior caused varied reactions to one event that was witnessed, experienced, and discussed by millions. Marton and Trigwell’s (2000) explanation of variation and discernment clearly emphasizes this diversity when they suggest that “The situation we are trying to handle is the situation as we experience it. Our acts spring from how things appear to us, not how things appear to others. Experiencing a situation in a certain way amounts to discovering certain critical features and attending to them at the same time. Different ways of experiencing the same situation originate from differences in what critical features are discerned and attended to at the same time. This has to do with the fact that our capability to grasp and be focally aware of a situation is limited.” (p. 386).  The aforementioned event caused such variation, not only did people’s perceptions change, but their lives altered significantly.

Our personal learning contexts provided in Task 1 described paradigm shifts in the experiences of travel to different countries and adapting to different lifestyles, customs, and geography as well as building local communities of practice; second language acquisition strategies for international students experiencing change of language; unconventional styles of learning in high school; and teaching and interacting with students’ understanding as well as usage of information technology.

Ginger’s paradigm shift transpired both internally and externally as she moved to another country. She describes her learning context for the past 6 years as the physical and ideological space that she and other members have created in a small village in northern Thailand. For her, living in a foreign country and cultures has been her greatest learning, as it has reshaped so many of the assumptions she had made about the world and her place in it. Living in a culture so different from her own has meant that she doesn’t take for granted the fact that she will understand what is happening or why it so. She does not assume she will always be listened to or understood, nor does she understand everything around her; this creates a sense of fresh exploration about sometimes even very ordinary experiences.

Through his learning context description, Oscar also experienced a paradigm shift due to a significant geographical change that also altered his experiences with learning. He began in a European schooling system that was highly behavioral in its teaching philosophy and later attended a non-traditional education university in Vermont, USA. It was partly this environmental alteration that caused him to reflect on and appreciate the diversity of learning as well as to emphasize teaching strategies that could foster productive and concise learning of a second language. He surmises that it is the foreign teacher’s pivotal task to foster an environment based on collaborative learning, thereby giving students as much freedom as the institutional and linguistic confinements may allow.

There has been much literature produced on the emergence of a learning paradigm. Gwyer Schuyler (1997) in a web article suggests that advocates of change see the present (academic) structures as inadequate to meet changes in work, knowledge, and citizenship while serving a greater number of students with diverse backgrounds and educational objectives. However while the article suggests how specific modifications, if and when implemented, can create a shift in learning, unfortunately most traditional institutions adhere to deeply ingrained teaching philosophies which make the idea of change as a learning paradigm a rather slow and drawn out process.

A great example of this idea of a learning paradigm shift can be attributed to Alexandra’s learning context when she applied to an outdoor program offered at her high-school. She recounted the altering perception of a non-traditional classroom where there were no desks, no standard curriculum, and no typical teachers. Rather she was exposed to different learning objectives through book reports and projects about nature and the environment, guest speakers and demonstrations about survival skills in the wilderness. Her “final exams” consisted of four major wilderness trips in which she applied the survival skills she had learned. Upon reflection, this experience created a paradigm shift of how the institution of schooling was and how it could be.

Greg’s learning context examined his observational and interactive involvement as an Information Technology instructor to students at the high school level. The concept of paradigm shift that can be applied here differs from the previous three narratives as it analyses learning through the external observation of student performance using information technology. It also considers the question of motivation level and how that plays in to not only learning content per se but valuing an alternate form of learning. When he recounted his students’ exposure to computer-based assignments, both their previous knowledge and internal/external incentives influenced their level of learning as well as how much meaning they attached to completing the assigned task.

In his article (1996), Wesley Hoover maintains that learners come to learning situations with knowledge gained from previous experience, and that prior knowledge influences what new or modified knowledge they will construct from new learning experiences. Greg identifies that while his students received an interactive demonstration of a new concept followed by an assigned task to reinforce the new knowledge learned, many students preferred to complete the task to move on to working with other class assignments, and/or to explore the internet. While the instruction was constructivist in nature, students did not necessarily engage in deeper learning. Additionally, his senior students also faced obstacles because they were unable to transfer their existing knowledge to new learning situations and thus struggled to make it personally meaningful. However, the incentive of good grades and social participation in extracurricular opportunities within their learning environment did create the motivation to learn.


To summarize, paradigm shifts continually occur in our world, and the impact experienced is based on what critical components we discern from the particular event. Each of us has experienced paradigm shifts which have significantly altered our thoughts and inevitably our lives. This is partly due to our willingness to accept change in our environments thus motivating us to learn. People have to first be open to receive a new perspective before they can evaluate its relevance. This consensual realization is a process of shifting incrementally which will eventually set the stage for growth and change. However, whether or not they challenge the way a person thinks and/or behaves is determined by the willingness and motivation of the individual to accept it.

CONCLUSION

A dissertation of global learning would be incomplete without an action plan for change. Global education is based on the pedagogy of Awareness, Analysis and Action. (Global Education Center [GEC], 2006). Not all people have thought about issues of globalization, trade or poverty, amongst others, and so raising awareness is the first step. Awareness of these issues leads people to understanding the links between their own lives and those of people throughout the world.

Analyzing global issues is complex due to various and competing perspectives. It is not always possible to say what is right or wrong in association with a global issue, and therefore the ability to research and analyze is critical. During this analysis learners not only expand their skills and knowledge but develop values and attitudes.

Once the information is assembled and considered, the next step is action. Global education enables people to practice active citizenship by engaging at the personal, local and global levels to work for positive change.

In the section on Intercultural Communication we established that awareness of intercultural differences may be achieved through the development of shared meaning and knowledge. Beyond that, we envision a higher stage of intercultural development titled Transformation.

Self-improvement will occur in individuals if they are open to change. In order for paradigm shifts to occur they must be willing to receive a new perspective before they can evaluate its relevance. Educators in their various roles have an opportunity to promote global learning by fostering education environments that strive to reflect this definition:

Global Education is education that opens people’s eyes and minds to the realities of the world, and awakens them to bring about a world of greater justice, equity and human rights for all (GEC, 2006).

SUGGESTED WEBLIOGRAPHY

David Bohm: On Dialogue, On-line version: http://www.questia.com/read/103086838?title=Title%20Page#

Resources on Geert Hoofstede:

http://stuwww.uvt.nl/~csmeets/

http://www.geert-hofstede.com/

http://www.geert-hofstede.com/geert_hofstede_resources.shtml

Journal of Intercultural Communication, Göteborgs universitet

http://www.immi.se/intercultural/

Pamala Morris’ Training Module on Building Cultural Competencies:

https://sharepoint.agriculture.purdue.edu/ces/iec/building.aspx

Milton Bennett’s Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS):

http://www.intercultural.org/idi_dmis.php

Modes of intercultural communication:
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/non-verbal-communication

The Hidden Dimension:
http://www.interbiznet.com/bookclub/reviews/thehiddendimension.html

Beyond Culture:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beyond_Culture

On Global Education:

http://www.globaled.org.nz/about/globaled/

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adler, P. S.  Beyond cultural identity: Reflections upon cultural and multicultural man. In R.W. Brislin (Ed.), Topics in Culture Learning,2 (pp. 23-40.) Honolulu, HI: East-West Center. 1974, available at http://www.mediate.com/articles/adler3.cfm

Anonymous, (nd), <http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/dimensions.html&gt; accessed, on Nov. 28, 2008

Barr, R.B. (1995). From teaching to learning: A new reality for community colleges. Leadership Abstracts Mission Viego, CA: League for Innovation in the Community College, 8 (3).

Bennett, M. J. (1993). Towards Ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In R. M. Paige (Ed.). Education for the intercultural experience. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Bohm, D., & Nichol, L. (1996). On dialogue. London: Routledge

Doolittle, P. (2000) Constructivism and Online Education. Online Conference in Teaching Online in Higher Education. Retrieved on Oct 20, 2008 from

<http://edpsychserver.ed.vt.edu/workshops/tohe1999/pedagogy.html>

Entwistle, N. (2005) Contrasting perspectives on learning. In F. Marton, D. Hounsell, & N.

Entwistle (eds.) The experience of learning, (pgs. 3-22). 3rd (Internet) edition. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Centre for Teaching, Learning and Assessment.

Glasersfeld, E. von (1989) Cognition, construction of knowledge, and teaching. Synthese

80(1): 121–140. Retrieved Oct.1, 2008 from <http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/EvG/papers/118.pdf>

Global Education Center, Wellington, NZ (2006), Global Education, accessed and retrieved on Dec.1, 2008 at <http://www.globaled.org.nz/gec_media/files/factsheets/Global%20Education.pdf>

from the site http://www.globaled.org.nz/about/globaled/

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press.

Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural relations. 27 (4), 421-443.

Hoover, W. (1996). The Practice Implications of Constructivism. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory Volume IX Number 3.

Jaeger, M; Lauritzen, C. (1992) The Construction of Meaning from Experience. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English (82nd, Louisville, KY, November 18-23, 1992) Retrieved on Oct. 9, 2008 from<http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED358410>

Kim, Y.Y., Intercultural Communication Studies IV:1 1994, 1-24   Beyond Cultural Identity, accessed and retrieved on Dec. 2, 2008 from http://www.trinity.edu/org/ics/ICS%20Issues/04%20ICS%20IV%201/Microsoft%20Word %20-%20p%20%201%20%20Y.%20Y.pdf

Landis, D., Bennett, Bennett, M. J. et al. (2004). Handbook of intercultural training. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Marton, F. & Säljö, R. (2005) Approaches to Learning. In F. Marton, D. Hounsell, & N. Entwistle (eds.) The experience of learning, (pgs. 39 – 58). 3rd (Internet) edition. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Centre for Teaching, Learning and Assessment.

Marton, F., & Trigwell, K. (2000). Variatio Est Mater Studiorum. Higher Education Research & Development. 19 (3), 381-395.

Morris, P. (nd), International Extension Curriculum: Building Cultural Competencies, LECTURE 2 The Bennett Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, available at <https://www.agriculture.purdue.edu/oap/AGR101/documents/InterculturalModels.pdf> accessed on Nov. 27, 2008

Oberg, K. (1954). Culture shock. Bobbs-Merrill reprint series in the social sciences, A-329. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Rodriguez, A. (2002) Culture To Culturing Re-imagining Our Understanding Of Intercultural Relations, in Göteborgs Universitet, Journal of Intercultural communication. Göteborg, Sweden: issue 5, 2002 accessed and retrieved on Nov 29, 2008 from <http://www.immi.se/intercultural/nr5/rodriguez.pdf>

Rust, K, (2006) ICS 270-01 (.50) Introduction to Intercultural Studies Spring 2006 ICS Elmhurst College,<www.elmhurst.edu/~richs/EC/ICS270/BennettModel.pdf> accessed on Nov 10, 2008

Schulyer, G. (1997). A Paradigm Shift from Instruction to Learning. ERIC Digest. Available at <www.ericdigests.org/1998-2/shift.htm>

Wenger, E., Communities of Practice: A Brief Introduction. Retrieved on December 7, 2008 at

<http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm> from the site http://www.ewenger.com/

Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of practice: learning as a social system. Systems Thinker, 9(5), 1-9.

Wenger, E. (1991) Communities of practice: where learning happens. Benchmark, pgs. 1-5.

Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design, 2nd Edition (Chapter 1). Retrieved December 5, 2008, from http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=N2EfKlyUN4QC&dq=wiggins&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=gm6Go7UJ2u&sig=iQv2-NAQet8EOx6T40GdaQUgEJg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6&ct=result#PPP4,M1

Winn, W., & Snyder, D. (1996). Cognitive perspectives in psychology. In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook for Research for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 112-142). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.

This report has been made possible by the co-operation of ALGC cohort members working collaboratively across international boundaries at four different locations: N. Vancouver, B.C., Canada; Chiang Mai, Thailand; Seattle, WA, U.S.A.; Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Our group has succeeded in making Winnipeg’s motto a reality:

Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One with the Strength of Many)

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: